Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad Bayhaqi رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه

One of the personalities amongst the great Muhaddiseen who has a very high scholarly status is Shaykh-ul-Islam, Faqeeh-e-Jaleel, Haafiz-e-Kabeer, Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad Bin Husayn Bayhaqi Shaafi’i رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ.

Birth

He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was born in Bayhaq [near Nishapur, Iran], a famous city of Khurasan, in Sha’ban-ul-Mu’azzam 384 AH. In relation to the city ‘Bayhaq’ he رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ is called ‘Bayhaqi’.

Education and teachers

He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ travelled to Hejaz, Makkah Mukarramah, Iraq, Jabaal, Nishapur, Taabran, Daamghan, Esfarayen and many other areas for gaining religious ‘Uloom [branches of knowledge] and the knowledge of Hadees. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was inclined to listen to Hadees [would listen to blessed Ahadees directly from his teacher] when he was just fifteen years old. Amongst his teachers, the name of Imam Abu ‘Abdullah Haakim Nishapuri Shaafi’i رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ, the author of Mustadrak, is at the top of the list. In addition, he رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ also gained knowledge from Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Foorak Shaafi’i and Muhaddis Abu Sa’eed Muhammad Bin Musa Sayrafi رَحْمَھما اللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی. Imam Tajuddeen Subuki Shaafi’i رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ has narrated that he had more than 100 teachers and Shuyukh.

Students

Shaykh-ul-Islam Khuwajah ‘Abdullah Ansari Haravi, Sayyiduna Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad Bin Fadl [فَضْل] Faravi Shaafi’i, Haafiz Zaahir Bin Taahir Shahhaami, Sayyiduna Abul Ma’aali Muhammad Bin Isma’eel Farsi رَحِمَهُمُ الـلّٰـهُ تَـعَالٰی and many other personalities are amongst his famous students.

Scholarly glory and books

Haafiz ‘Abdul Ghaafir Bin Isma’eel رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ has said: “Bayhaqi” was a Mufti, Haafiz of Hadees, had a matchless memory as compared to his contemporaries and was superior to them regarding Zabt-o-Ittiqaan. He is one of the great students of Imam Haakim, but he had more knowledge of many ‘Uloom [branches of knowledge] than him. He started writing and memorizing blessed Ahadees since his childhood. He has written matchless books about the knowledge of Hadees and Fiqh. He has written books on many important topics like beliefs, Ahadees, Fiqh, Manaqib, etc. Amongst his famous books the names of Dalaail-un-Nubuwwah, Shu’ab-ul-Iman, Ma’rifat-us-Sunan wal-Aasaar, As-Sunan-ul-Kabeer, As-Sunan-us-Sagheer, Kitab-ul-Asma was-Sifaat and Hayat-ul-Ambiya are at the top of the list.

Asceticism and piety

Talking about his asceticism and piety Imam Abul Hasan Haafiz ‘Abdul Ghaafir Bin Isma’eel رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ has said: Imam Bayhaqi رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ would live like the blessed Seerah [life] of the past Islamic scholars. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was satisfied with a little amount of money and was ascetic and pious. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ worshipped in such a way that he observed Sawm every day [except the days when observing Sawm is prohibited] in the last 30 years of his life.

Blessed demise

He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ spent the last part of his blessed life in Nishapur. He fell ill there and passed away. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ passed away on the 10th Jumadal Aula, 458 AH in Nishapur and was laid to rest in Bayhaq.

May Allah Almighty have mercy on him and forgive us without any accountability for his sake!

اٰمِيۡن بِجَاهِ النَّبِيِّ الۡاَمِيۡن صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ

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Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad Bayhaqi رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه

Brief Introduction

Hujjat-ul-Islam, ‘Allamah Maulana Mufti Muhammad Haamid Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was born in Bareilly, India in Rabi’-ul-Awwal 1292 AH. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was named ‘Muhammad’, but he used to be called by the name of ‘Haamid Raza’. (Tazkirah Jameel, pp. 106; summarised)

Baray Maulana, Ra`ees-ul-‘Ulama, Taj-ul-Atqiya and Hujjat-ul-Islam are his titles. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ received his education and was given upbringing under the supervision of his father A’la Hadrat, Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ completed his studies just at the age of 19. He was the Mureed and Khalifah of Shah Abul Husayn Ahmad Noori رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ and he also got Khilafat and permission from his father A’la Hadrat رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ. (Tazkirah Mashaaikh-e-Qadiriyyah Razawiyyah, pp. 483) He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was very good-looking and had very good manners.

Habits and manners

The prominent aspects of his manners are as follows: He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ would speak smilingly, keep his eyes lowered, have soft and loving tone, often continue to recite Salat-‘Alan-Nabi, respect elders and become affectionate towards the younger. (Faizan-e-A’la Hadrat, pp. 95; summarised)

Scholarly status and books

The status and rank of his scholarly competence can be judged by his expertise in teaching, books, Bayanaat, students and by his contemporary Islamic scholars. The Arab Islamic scholars have praised his expertise in the Arabic language. The increase of admissions due to his teaching at Dar-ul-‘Uloom Manzar-e-Islam Bareilly Shareef, having students like Muhaddis-e-A’zam Pakistan and having a collection of Fatawa like Fatawa Haamidiyyah are living proof of his high scholarly status. (Tazkirah Mashaaikh-e-Qadiriyyah Razawiyyah, pp. 487, 494)

Travels

He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ travelled for Hajj, travelled to Azimabad Patna, Jabalpur, etc., with his father Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ and travelled many times to the cities of Banaras, Lucknow, Pilibhit, Kolkata, Muzaffarpur, Udaipur, Chator, Kanpur, Markaz-ul-Awliya Lahore, UP, CP and Bihar and tried to reform people’s beliefs and deeds through his Bayanaat. (Tazkirah-e-Jameel, pp. 186)

Successor to A’la Hadrat

A’la Hadrat, Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ declared Hujjat-ul-Islam Maulana Haamid Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ to be his successor in his blessed life and made a will that his funeral Salah be led by him. Before demise A’la Hadrat رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ instructed the people who would come to become his Mureed to do Bay’at from Hujjat-ul-Islam in these words, ‘His Bay’at is my Bay’at, his hand is my hand, his Mureed is my Mureed, become his Mureed’. (Fatawa Haamidiyyah, pp. 52; summarised)

So according to the will of A’la Hadrat رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ Hujjat-ul-Islam ‘Allamah Maulana Haamid Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ led his funeral Salah. (Hayat-e-A’la Hadrat, part 3, pp. 297; Al-Faqeeh Amritsar, 5th November, 1921, pp. 10; Tajdar-e-Mulk-e-Sukhan, pp. 255 to 256)

Demise and funeral Salah

Hujjat-ul-Islam passed away on 17th Jumadal Aula, 1362 AH at the age of 70 in the state of Salah. His beloved Khalifah Muhaddis-e-A’zam Pakistan Maulana Sardar Ahmad رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ led his funeral Salah. A large number of people attended it. He رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ was laid to rest in Khanqah Razawiyyah Bareilly Shareef beside his blessed father Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُاللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہ.

(Tazkirah Mashaaikh-e-Qadiriyyah Razawiyyah, pp. 500)

May Allah Almighty have mercy on him and forgive us without any accountability for his sake!

اٰمِيۡن بِجَاهِ النَّبِيِّ الۡاَمِيۡن صَلَّى اللّٰهُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيۡهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم

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