Dar-ul-Ifta Ahl-e-Sunnat

Who is allowed to pay expiation instead of keeping missed Siyam as Qada?

Question 1: What do Islamic scholars and respected Muftis say about the following issue? The father of a person is around 65 years of age. His father is also a heart patient. Therefore, he is unable to keep Sawm. What is the commandment for him in the Islamic Shar’iah?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: Here is the commandment of the Islamic Shari’ah for these types of people. If it is suspected that his disease will become severe or he will take a long time to get cured, then he is allowed not to keep the Sawm that day. However, it is obligatory for him to keep it as Qada later on. In this matter, he must not rely on his thoughts. Instead, there must be a strong presumption. One can have a strong presumption by noticing apparent signs or on the basis of his personal experience or by taking advice from any expert doctor who is not a transgressor. If such a doctor is not available, then he should contact a religious-minded doctor or he should attempt to seek advice from more than one doctor. If he did not keep the Sawm without having a strong presumption, then he must keep the Sawm as Qada as well as repent of missing the Sawm.

The person who cannot keep the Siyam of Ramadan will pay expiation under certain conditions, not in every type of situation. If he cannot keep Qada Siyam in summer, then he must keep them in winter because days are comparatively short and the weather is also cold in winter. He is not also required to keep Siyam consecutively because some patients do not have the strength to do so. He is allowed to keep Siyam after gaps. However, he must keep as many Siyam as were missed. If he is unable to keep Siyam even in winter and his age or disease leads to the strong presumption that he will neither get cured nor will he have the strength to keep Sawm, then the person suffering from this condition is termed Sheikh-e-Faani. The commandment for a Sheikh-e-Faani is that he must pay expiation for each missed Sawm, i.e. he must give two meals to a Miskeen in such a quantity that the Miskeen is full or he must pay one Sadaqah Fitr to a Miskeen. The amount of one Sadaqah Fitr is 1.920 Kilograms of wheat or its flour or the money equivalent to its value.

Remember! If he pays his expiation but later on regains his strength to keep Sawm, then the previously paid expiation will turn into a Nafl Sadaqah and he will have to make up for those missed Siyam by keeping them Qada. (Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol. 3, pp. 463; Rad-dul-Muhtar, vol. 3, pp. 471; Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, pp. 1006)

وَاللہُ  اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

Clarification of the two cases in which Sawm becomes invalid

Question 2: What do Islamic scholars say about the following issue? The following ruling is stated in the book ‘Faizan-e-Ramadan’: If there is a morsel of food in somebody’s mouth at Sahari and the time of Sahari ends with the morsel still in his mouth or if somebody who is eating forgetfully recalls that he is in the state of Sawm whilst the morsel of food is in his mouth, but he swallows the morsel despite being aware that he is in the state of Sawm; then expiation will be Wajib in both the cases. However, if he takes the morsel out of his mouth and then eats it, only Qada of the Sawm will be Wajib, there will be no expiation. The question is, why is there a difference in both of these rulings?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: In the first case, expiation is Wajib for the reason that the morsel, as long as in the mouth, is eaten with relish. In the second case, only Qada is to be made, there is no expiation. This is for the reason that the morsel, after it has been taken out of the mouth, is not eaten with relish. Rather, one does not naturally like to eat such a morsel. (Derived from: Minhat-us-Sulook, vol. 1, pp. 263; Bida`i’-us-Sana`i’, vol. 2, pp. 645)

وَاللہُ  اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

How is it to swallow saliva in the state of Sawm?

Question 3: What do Islamic scholars say about the following issue? If a person swallows the saliva that appears on his lip during conversation; will the Sawm become invalid in this case?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: During conversation or on any other occasion, if the lips of a person become wet with saliva which he swallows, then the Sawm will not become invalid in this case. However, one should be careful about swallowing this saliva. (Fatawa ‘Aalamgiri, vol. 1, pp. 303; Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 983)

وَاللہُ  اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

How is it for a Sawm-keeping person to eat and drink water, etc. after vomit?

Question 4: What do Islamic scholars and respected Muftis say about the following issue? A person vomits involuntarily in the state of Sawm and the vomit is also “mouthful”. He is under the impression that vomit invalidates the Sawm. Therefore, he drinks water, etc., deliberately after the vomit. What is the ruling on the Sawm in the above situation?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: Vomiting involuntarily does not invalidate the Sawm no matter how big the quantity of the vomit is. However, if a person vomits involuntarily and he eats and drinks anything afterwards, assuming that his Sawm has become invalid due to this vomit, then his Sawm will become invalid owing to the post-vomit eating or drinking anything. In this case, he will have to keep only Qada Sawm, he is not required to make any expiation. (Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol. 3, pp. 431; Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 989)

وَاللہُ  اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

Belch in the state of Sawm

Question 5: What do Islamic scholars say about the following issue? A few minutes after the ending of the Sahari time has ended, if someone belches, causing him to feel water in the throat and the water goes down the throat either; will the Sawm become invalid in this case?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: If someone belches, causing the water to come to the throat and to go down again, his Sawm will not become invalid. If someone vomits food, etc. in less than the “mouthful” quantity and the food, etc. goes down the throat again, his Sawm will not become invalid. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, vol. 3, pp. 450; Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 10, pp. 486; Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 988)

وَاللہُ  اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

 

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