Laws of trade

How is it to practise the legal profession?

Question 1: What do respected Islamic scholars say about the following issue? Is it permissible to practise the legal profession?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: The legal profession is itself permissible. In fact, many people are not able enough to present their viewpoint properly, to justify it by giving proofs and to gain their right. One also wants to avoid facing the disgraceful situation in the court. Therefore, blessed Shar’iah has allowed a person to make anyone else his representative for the purpose of pursuing the case on his behalf. This practice dates back to ancient times.

Regarding arguing with the representative of a person, Sayyidatuna Fatimah Bint-e-Qays رَضِیَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهَا said:

طلقنی زوجی ثلاثًا، ثم خرج الی الیمن، فوکل

اخاہ بنفقتی، فخاصمتە الی رسول اللّٰە صلی اللّٰە علیە وسلم

Translation: My husband divorced me thrice. He then went to Yemen after he made his brother his representative by entrusting him with providing for me. So, in the court of the Holy Nabi صَلَّى اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم, I argued with him (i.e. the brother of the husband). (Kitab-ul-Asal, vol. 11, pp. 205)

Based on narrations, it is proved that Sayyiduna ‘Ali رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ would make any person his representative so that the representative would handle disputes on behalf of Sayyiduna ‘Ali رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ. Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Bin Ja’far رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ said:

کان علی بن ابی طالب رضی اللّٰە عنە یکرہ الخصومة فکان

اذا کانت لە خصومة وکل فیھا عقیل بن ابی طالب فلما کبر عقیل وکلنی

Translation: Sayyiduna ‘Ali Bin Abu Talib رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ disliked quarrels. When he رَضِىَ اللّٰهُ تَعَالٰی عَـنْهُ needed to handle such a situation, he رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ would make Sayyiduna ‘Aqeel Bin Abu Talib رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ his representative. After Sayyiduna ‘Aqeel رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ became very old, Sayyiduna ‘Ali رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ made me his representative. (Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Bayhaqi, vol. 6, pp. 134)

Regarding the permissibility and wisdom of making anyone else a representative for the handling of disputes, Imam Sarakhsi [سرخسی] رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه stated:

اذا وکل الرجل بالخصومة فی شئ فھو جائز لانە یملك المباشرۃ بنفسە فیملك ھو صکە الی غیرہ لیقوم فیە مقامە وقد یحتاج لذلك اما لقلة ھدایتە او لصیانة نفسە عن ذلك الابتذال فی مجلس الخصومة وقد جری الرسم علی التوکیل علی ابواب القضاء من لدن رسول اللّٰە صلی اللّٰە علیە وسلم الی یومنا ھذا من غیر نکیر منکر وزجر زاجر

Translation: If a person makes someone else his representative so that the representative will deal with the dispute on his behalf, this is permissible. As a person is allowed to handle the dispute himself, he is also allowed to have it handled by his representative. Sometimes, a person needs to make someone else his representative for the reason that the former is not prudent [i.e. wise] or he wants to avoid facing the disgraceful situation in the court. Anyway, making someone a representative for the purpose of arbitration[1] has been permissible and in practice without any denial since the blessed era of the Greatest Nabi صَلَّى اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم. (Al-Mabsoot Sarakhsi, vol. 19, pp. 6)

Fulfilling the Shar’i requirements of the wage agreement, the representative may receive the wage in return for prosecuting the case. It is stated in the book ‘درر الحکام شرح مجلة الاحکام’:

لو وکل احد آخر بالمحاکمة والمخاصمة مع آخر وبین وقت

مدۃ معینة للخصومة والمرافعة وقاولە علی اجرۃ کانت الاجارۃ صحیحة ولزم الاجر

Translation: If a person makes someone else his representative for the settlement of a dispute, explaining the situation to the representative and fixing the time of the case; and the representative also does this job in return for wage, then this employment is valid and wage must be paid. (Durar-ul-Hukaam Sharh Mujalla-tul-Ahkam, vol. 3, pp. 594)

Regarding the permissibility of making someone a representative, a leading and legendary scholar of Shar’iah and Tareeqah ‘Allamah Maulana Mufti Muhammad Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه stated: Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ has blessed humans with different natures; someone is strong whereas someone is weak; some are not very intelligent but some are very intelligent. Not every person has the capability to cope with his matters himself nor is every person prepared to do all of his tasks with his own hand. Therefore, man needs to have his work done by others. Therefore, it is right to make anyone a representative for the settlement of a dispute regarding all those rights of others (حقوق العباد) which do not get null and void just on the basis of a doubt no matter those rights are related to debt or to the existing wealth. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, pp. 973, 977)

Beware! Like every other professional, a lawyer is also required to comply with the principles of Shari’ah. When performing his job, a lawyer must refrain from lying, deceiving, from favouring anyone unjustifiably and from having any Shar’iah-contradicting judgement made. Similarly, he must also refrain from showing an oppressor to be the oppressed one and vice versa and from violating the right of a person unjustifiably, etc. If the lawyer helps with something sinful, he will be considered to be an oppressor.

In the Holy Quran, Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ gave the following commandment to His Beloved Rasool (صَلَّى اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰى عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم) for conveying it to his Ummah, guiding it:

اِنَّاۤ اَنْزَلْنَاۤ اِلَیْكَ الْكِتٰبَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَیْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَاۤ اَرٰىكَ اللّٰهُؕ-وَ لَا تَكُنْ لِّلْخَآىٕنِیْنَ خَصِیْمًاۙ(۱۰۵)وَّ اسْتَغْفِرِ اللّٰهَؕ-اِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ غَفُوْرًا رَّحِیْمًاۚ(۱۰۶) وَ لَا تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِیْنَ یَخْتَانُوْنَ اَنْفُسَهُمْؕ-اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ خَوَّانًا اَثِیْمًاۚۙ(۱۰۷)

O Beloved, We have indeed sent down the true Book towards you, so that you may judge between the people; in the way Allah shows you, and do not fight on behalf of the deceivers. And seek forgiveness from Allah; indeed Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. And do not fight on behalf of those who are dishonest to themselves; indeed Allah does not like any extremely treacherous sinner.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 5, Surah An-Nisa, Ayah 105-107)

Despite being aware of the real situation, it is extreme cruelty to support the oppressor. Having described the holy reason of the revelation of the above Ayah, Imam Jasaas [جصاص] رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه stated:

وھذا یدل علی انە غیر جائز لاحد ان یخاصم

 



[1] The process of settling a dispute

عن غیرہ فی اثبات حق او نفیە وھو غیر عالم بحقیقة امرہ

Translation: This blessed Ayah proves that it is not permissible to prosecute a case against a person for the purpose of proving that other person has or does not have a right unless the prosecutor has become aware of the real situation. (Ahkam-ul-Quran, vol. 2, pp. 279)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

How is it to purchase and sell water?

Question 2: What do respected Islamic scholars say about the following issue? How is it to purchase and sell water? At some places, water is sold in litres and at some other places, it is sold in gallons. Which of the cases is permissible?

بِسْمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: It is permissible for a person to sell and purchase the water that is in his ownership. It is stated in Bahar-e-Shari’at: The water stored in ewers, large pitchers and pots cannot be used by anyone without permission from the owner. This water can also be sold by the owner. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 3, pp. 667)

Usually, the bottle or the gallon, etc. in which the water is sold, is itself a unit for measurement and is known to people. However, the exact number of litres in the bottle is, sometimes, not known. But the buyer knows that he has bought water in a certain bottle which is in front of him. So the bottle is itself a unit for measurement in this case and there is no ambiguity either. Therefore, this type of sale and purchase is permissible. It is stated in Bahar-e-Shari’at: If someone asks the water-selling person to serve water from a certain number of particular water-bag, then this is permissible. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, pp. 698)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

Share

Articles

Comments


Security Code