Importance of source of income, Laws of trade, Introduction to Sayyiduna Da’laj رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ and his occupation, Sayings of our pious predecessors regarding trade

Righteous predecessors would give a lot of importance to earn permissible livelihood in order to remain safe from the dependency of people and to facilitate them to worship Allah Almighty.

٭   Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq رَضِىَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَـنْهُ states: After getting martyred in the path of Allah Almighty, I do not love any other death more than the one that I die riding my ride while searching for the Fadl [Halal livelihood and sustenance] of Allah Almighty.

٭   One righteous predecessor رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  states: I asked Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Bin Mubarak رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  regarding sea trade. He replied: Make trade through the sea and the land, and be free from the dependency of people.

٭   When any person from Arabia would come to Imam Muhammad Bin Seereen رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ , then he would say to him: Why don’t you do business?

٭   Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddeeq رَضِىَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَـنْهُ was a businessman of Quraysh.

٭        One person met Sayyiduna Hasan Bin Yahya رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  in Abyssinia. Sayyiduna Hasan Bin Yahya رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  had trading goods with him. The person asked: What is the purpose of your arrival here? He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  told him the reason for coming to Abyssinia (that I have come here for the purpose of trading). That person reproved him saying: Is this not desiring this world and greed for this world? He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  said: O person! I have been inclined towards this because I dislike dependency of people like you. (Mawsu’ah Ibn Abid Dunya, pp. 450, 451, 454, 456)

Dear Islamic brothers! We should also try not to sit idle and beg others; instead, we should do some work or adopt such a profession through which we could easily fulfil our own and our families’ needs.

Share

Importance of source of income, Laws of trade, Introduction to Sayyiduna Da’laj رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ and his occupation, Sayings of our pious predecessors regarding trade

What is the Islamic ruling on selling the clothes used by the Kuffar (unbelievers)?

Question 1: What do the blessed ‘Ulama [Islamic scholars] state regarding the following matter: I have a handcart for [selling] old clothes which contains the clothes used by the Kuffar [unbelievers] as well. It is possible that there may be Najis [impure] clothes also along with Taahir [pure] ones. So is it permissible for me to sell clothes like this? Suppose I even know about a particular cloth that it is Najis, what is the Islamic ruling on selling it?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

It is permissible to sell the clothes in both the cases whether they are Taahir or Najis. However, the clothes will be considered to be Taahir as long as it is not known that they are Najis. If you know with certainty about a particular cloth that it is Najis, buying and selling it will be permissible even then, but the buyer must be informed [about it] so that he does not use it without making it Taahir.

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

After which Jumu’ah Azan have we been commanded to stop business?

Question 2: What do the ‘Ulama state regarding the following matter: On Jumu’ah, at which Azan have we been commanded to stop business?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

As soon as the first Jumu’ah Azan is called out, it is Wajib [compulsory] to stop business and do Sa’ee[1] for Jumu’ah [Salah]. It is impermissible and a sin to buy and sell something after the Azan is called out. Sadr-us-Shari’ah, Badr-ut-Tareeqah, ‘Allamah Maulana Mufti Muhammad Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: Sa’ee is Wajib as soon as the first Azan is called out and it is also Wajib to leave Bay’ [بیع] [sale and purchase] and other activities which obstruct Sa’ee; it is impermissible even if one buys or sells while walking on the path, and buying and selling in the Masjid is a grievous sin. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 775)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

What is the Islamic ruling on doing trade or a job without learning the Shar’i laws?

Question 3: What do the blessed ‘Ulama and Muftis [Islamic jurists] state regarding the following matter: If a person conducts trade without learning the laws of trade or a person does a job without learning the laws of Ijarah [employment], will his earnings be Halal or not?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

It is Fard for a trader to learn the necessary Shar’i laws of trade and for an employee to learn the necessary Shar’i laws of employment and Ijarah; not learning these laws is a sin. However, if someone conducts business or does a job without knowing the Shar’i laws and any such thing is not found which makes the earnings Haraam, then earnings of such a person will be regarded as Halal. Furthermore, if any such thing is found which makes the earnings Haraam such as receiving full price in trade after weighing less or receiving salary in employment by marking false attendance despite being absent from work, then only that amount of earnings will be Haraam which is equal to the extra price received by weighing less or is equal to the salary which is received for the day whose false attendance was marked. The complete earnings of the person who does not know the necessary Shar’i laws is not Haraam. However, it is a fact that the people who do not know the Shar’i laws keep committing mistakes more. At times, even their earnings become Haraam but they are unaware of it.

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

Definition of Ihtikaar [احتکار] and its ruling

Question 4: What do the blessed ‘Ulama state regarding the following matter: What is Ihtikaar and what is its ruling?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Ihtikaar is strictly forbidden, impermissible and a sin. There are many Ahadees which condemn it.

Sayyiduna Umar Bin Khattab رَضِىَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَـنْهُ has narrated that the Beloved Rasool صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ said: Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ will make such person suffer from leprosy and poverty who stopped grain from [reaching] the Muslims. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, Juz: 2, vol. 1, pp. 535)

The literal meaning of Ihtikaar is: To hoard something, waiting for a rise in its price. In the Shar’i terminology, Ihtikaar means: To hoard anything which is the basic food of the humans or animals with the intention of selling it when its price will rise, provided that the people face difficulty in case a person does not sell it, and that thing is purchased from the city or near the city. Therefore, if people do not face difficulty in case a person does not sell it or that thing is the produce of a person’s own farm or he has brought it after purchasing from a faraway place, then hoarding in these cases is not included in Ihtikaar.

A’la Hadrat, Imam-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, Maulana Shah Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: It is Makruh and forbidden to hoard grain with the intention of selling it when its price will rise, provided that the person has purchased it from the same place or from its nearby place and people will face difficulty in case he does not sell it. However, there is no harm if a person brings grain after purchasing from a faraway place and does not sell it, waiting for its price to rise, or the creation does not face difficulty in case he does not sell it. (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 17, pp. 189)

Sadr-us-Shari’ah, Badr-ut-Tareeqah, ‘Allamah Maulana Mufti Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: Ihtikaar i.e. hoarding grain is forbidden and a grievous sin. Its form is: A person purchases grain when there is its shortage and does not sell but hoards it to sell it at a very high price when the people become very anxious. However, if this is not the case but he purchases grain in harvesting season and hoards it and then sells it after some days when its price rises, it is neither Ihtikaar nor forbidden. There is no Ihtikaar in things other than the grain. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, pp. 725)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم

What is the Islamic ruling on selling counterfeit products?

Question 5: What do the blessed ‘Ulama state regarding the following matter: A company made a product and started selling it in the market. Someone else is now making counterfeit copy of this product with the same name and selling this counterfeit product at a low price in the market by using the name of the actual company. What is the Islamic ruling on it? Moreover, what is the Islamic ruling on supplying this product and selling it to the customers?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ  ھِدَایَۃَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

It is Haraam to make counterfeit product by using the name of any company and sell it to the buyer without informing, as it is deception and selling the goods by deceiving is impermissible and Haraam. Trade conducted by a Muslim must be free from all Shari’ah-prohibited acts like telling lies, breaking promises and deceiving. There are many Ahadees which condemn these acts.

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ   عَزَّوَجَلَّ   وَ رَسُوْلُہ اَعْلَم   صَلَّی اللّٰہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ واٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّم



[1] To prepare for Jumu’ah Salah and go for it.

Share

Importance of source of income, Laws of trade, Introduction to Sayyiduna Da’laj رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ and his occupation, Sayings of our pious predecessors regarding trade

Brief biography

Sayyiduna Da’laj Bin Ahmad رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  was born in probably 259 Hijri. He was Ustaz-ul-Muhaddiseen, a great Faqih [Islamic jurist] and a wealthy trader. He resided in Makkah Mukarramah for a considerable period of time and passed away in the year 351 Hijri or 353 Hijri. (Siyar A’laam-un-Nubala, vol. 12, pp. 204, 205, 207)

What did he trade?

Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  was a cloth trader. (Siyar A’laam-un-Nubala, vol. 12, pp. 207)

How did he become wealthy?

Sayyiduna Ibn Abi Musa رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  had to make payment somewhere. He has stated: The earth had become limited for me despite being huge and I was very anxious. I was unable to find a way as to how I may make the payment. In the same state of anxiousness, I mounted my mule early morning with the intention of going to Karkh. I didn’t know where my mule was going. My mule stopped at the door of the Masjid of Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  located in an area, namely Darb-us-Salooli. I entered the Masjid and offered Salat-ul-Fajr led by Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ . After Salah, Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  paid attention towards me; he welcomed me and took me to his house. Dining-mat was laid over there and Hareesah (a famous sweet dish of Arabs) was served. Engrossed in thoughts, I started eating. Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  asked me, ‘What is the matter? I am seeing that you are anxious.’ When I told him [the reason of] my anxiousness, he said, ‘Become unconcerned and eat; your need will be fulfilled.’

After having the meal, Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  gave me ten thousand Dinars (i.e. gold coins). When I stood up from there, my heart was filled with happiness. I made the payment with these Dinars. Afterwards, when Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ blessed me with wealth, I went to Sayyiduna Da’laj رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  to return [his amount] to him. He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  said, ‘By Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! I did not have the intention of taking it back. Purchase goods for the children with this amount.’ I asked, ‘O honourable Shaykh! How did you gain such amount of wealth that you gave me ten thousand Dinars?’

He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  responded: I became the Haafiz of Quran, acquired the knowledge of Hadees and also kept trading cloth along with it. One day, a trader came to me and asked, ‘Is your name Da’laj?’ I replied, ‘Yes!’ He said, ‘I wish to give you my wealth as Mudarabah[1].’ He gave me one million Dirhams and said, ‘Do not hesitate in spending wealth for trade. Take the wealth to the places of spending wealth which you know.’ That trader would come to me every year and would return after giving me one million Dirhams. In this way, the wealth was increasing. He once said, ‘I frequently travel through sea. If I die, this wealth is yours with the condition that you will give Sadaqah and have Masajid constructed from it and spend it on good purposes.’ For this reason, I spend the wealth on reward-earning deeds. Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ increased the wealth in my hands; do keep this matter of mine hidden as long as I remain alive. (Siyar A’laam-un-Nubala, vol. 12, pp. 206; summarized)

May Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ have mercy on him and forgive us without accountability for his sake!

اٰمِيۡن   بِجَاهِ   النَّبِيِّ  الۡاَمِيۡن   صَلَّى  اللّٰهُ تَعَالٰى  عَلَيۡهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم



[1] Mudarabah is a contract made between two parties in which money is given by one party and work is performed by the other party and both have share in the profit. (Tabyeen-ul-Haqaaiq, vol. 5, pp. 514)

Share

Importance of source of income, Laws of trade, Introduction to Sayyiduna Da’laj رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ and his occupation, Sayings of our pious predecessors regarding trade

A large number of the Muslims use trade as a means of earning livelihood. Islam has given us many golden rules for carrying out the trade-related activities effectively and perfectly. If the Muslims carry out trade truthfully and honestly, their trade will become more effective. Let’s read the sayings and practices of our pious predecessors regarding trade:

1. Cause of less number of customers

Sayyiduna Maalik Bin Dinar رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ once went to the market and sat beside some people. He asked them, ‘How is the trade going?’ They replied, ‘It is on the decline.’ He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ said, ‘You people would have acted deceivingly.’ He then asked, ‘How are your trade goods?’ They replied, ‘They are imperfect.’ He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ said, ‘You would have told lies.’ He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ then asked, ‘What is the amount of your trade goods?’ They replied, ‘The amount is less.’ He رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ said, ‘You would have sworn [oaths] (while selling the goods).’ (Bahjat-ul-Majalis wa Uns-ul-Majalis li Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, vol. 1, pp. 135)

2. People would be expelled from the market for not knowing the laws of trade

Sayyiduna Abu Muhammad رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: At the time of Maghrib, I saw an ombudsman going across the markets. He would stop at every shop and ask the shopkeeper regarding those laws which are necessary for him to learn regarding the trade goods. The ombudsman would also ask how Riba [interest] enters the trade and how one can refrain from it. If the shopkeeper would give the correct answer, the ombudsman would let him continue the trade, otherwise he would remove him from the shop and say: We will not let you stay in the markets of the Muslims; you will make the Muslims indulge in Riba and impermissible things. (Al-Madkhal li Ibn Al-Haaj Makki, vol. 1, pp. 114)

3. Dining-mats of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ

Sayyiduna Hasan Basri رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: Markets are the dining mats of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ on earth; the one who comes to the markets (in search of sustenance), gets at least something from them. (Al-Mujalisah wa Jawahir-ul-‘Ilm, vol. 3, pp. 122, Raqm 3065)

4. I am amazed at the trader

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Bin Mas’ood رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  would state: I am amazed at the trader; how can he remain safe? If he sells his selling item, he praises it and if he purchases something from someone, he mentions its shortcomings. (Bahjat-ul-Majalis wa Uns-ul-Majalis li Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, vol. 1, pp. 136)

5. Trade with Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ

Sayyiduna Ja’far Bin Muhammad رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ has stated: When I become poor and needy, I conduct trade with Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ by giving Sadaqah, so I gain benefit in it. (Bahjat-ul-Majalis wa Uns-ul-Majalis li Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, vol. 1, pp. 138)

May Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ grant us Taufeeq to act upon the Shar’i laws!

اٰمِيۡن   بِجَاهِ   النَّبِيِّ  الۡاَمِيۡن   صَلَّى  اللّٰهُ تَعَالٰى  عَلَيۡهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم

Share

Articles

Comments


Security Code