Types of Martyrs

The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم has stated:

اَلشَّہَادَۃُ سَبْعٌ سِوَی الْقَتْلِ فِی سَبِیلِ اللَّہِ: اَلْمَطْعُونُ شَہِیدٌ، وَالْغَرِقُ شَہِیدٌ، وَصَاحِبُ ذَاتِ الْجَنْبِ شَہِیدٌ، وَالْمَبْطُونُ شَہِیدٌ، وَصَاحِبُ الْحَرِیقِ شَہِیدٌ، وَالَّذِی یَمُوتُ تَحْتَ الْہَدْمِ شَہِیدٌ، وَالْمَرْأَۃُ تَمُوتُ بِجُمْعٍ شَہِیدٌ

Meaning: Besides being martyred in the path of Allah Almighty, there are seven types of martyrs as well.

1.   The one who passes away due to plague

2.   The one who passes away due to drowning

3.   The one who passes away in pleurisy

4.   The one who passes away due to an abdominal disease

5.   The one who passes away due to being burnt

6.   The one who passes away due to being crushed under something

7.   The woman who dies in the state of ’Jum’. (Abu Dawood, vol. 3, pp. 253, Hadees 3111)

Explanation of Hadees

In this blessed Hadees, it is stated that martyrdom, which is a great rank, is attained in other forms as well, besides giving your life fighting in the way of Allah Almighty. Remember that sacrificing your life fighting in the way of Allah Almighty is referred to as the ‘Shahadah Haqeeqiyyah’ i.e. real martyrdom, whereas other forms of martyrdoms are considered ‘Shahadah Hukmiyyah’ i.e. legal martyrdom. (Derived from Mirqat-ul-Mafatih, vol. 4, pp. 39, Taht-al-Hadees 1561)

Why is a martyr called a martyr?

Shaheed [i.e. martyr] is either in the meaning of a subject, i.e. the one who attends something, since a shaheed attends his destination even before his death, i.e. he sees it, hence, he is called a shaheed; or it is in the meaning of an object, i.e. the one who is attended to, since angels come to the shaheed and convey glad tiding to him, hence, he is called a shaheed. (Derived from Mirqat-ul-Mafatih, vol. 4, pp. 25, Taht-al-Hadees 1546)

 An explanation of individuals mentioned in Hadees

٭   Plague is a harmful disease in which some body parts get hard glandular swelling and one fuffers from high fever. (Derived from Feroz-ul-Lughat, pp. 923) Those passing away in this disease are martyrs as per ruling.

٭   The one who drowns and passes away. It is obvious that he will be a martyr only when this sea travel of his is not based upon sins. (Derived from Mirqat-ul-Mafatih, vol. 4, pp. 39, Taht-al-Hadees 1561)

٭   The one who passes away in the disease of pleurisy, i.e. the illness in which boils appear on the ribs, the ribs of a person ache and he gets fever, and there is often cough as well. (Mirat-ul-Manajih, vol. 2, pp. 420)

٭   The one who passes away due to stomach [disease]. Whilst explaining this, Sadr-ush-Shariah, Mufti Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْه has stated in the explanatory note of Bahar-e-Shari’at: This refers to ascites or diarrhoea or both. This word can entail both of them. Therefore, we can hope to His Divine grace that both will attain the reward of martyrdom. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 4, pp. 858)

٭   The woman who passes away in the state of ‘Jum’. It refers to the woman who passes away pregnant or passes away due to the amniotic sac[1] not coming out at the time of delivery, or passes away within forty (40) days after giving birth to a child. Such a woman is a martyr as per ruling. A few scholars have stated that it refers to an unmarried woman who dies without getting married. (Mirat-ul-Manajih, vol. 2, pp. 420)

Further Forms of Martyrdom

Besides these, there are many other forms in which one attains the reward of martyrdom. Further 25 forms of martyrdom that the blessed jurists have stated in the books of Fiqh are mentioned below.

1.   The one who passes away in the state of travelling

2.   The one who dies due to the ulceration of the lungs (a disease that forms wounds on the lungs and blood oozes out of the mouth)

3.   The one who passes away by falling from a riding animal or due to epilepsy

4.   The one who passes away in fever

5.   The one who is killed while protecting the right of his

6.   Wealth,

7.   Life,

8.   Family (wife, children, etc.)

9.   The one who is mutilated by a beast

10.   The one who is imprisoned by a king (i.e. ruler) unjustly and dies

11.   the one who is beaten and so dies due to it

12.   The one who passes away due to the bite of a harmful injurious animal (e.g. snake, etc.)

13.   The one who passes away while seeking Islamic knowledge

14.   A Muazzin who calls out Azan to reap reward

15.   A truthful trader

16.   The one who struggles to provide for his family, makes them act upon Shari’ah, and feeds them Halal

17.   The one who reads اَللّٰھُمَّ بِارِکْ لِیْ فِی الْمَوْتِ وَفِیْمَا بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ twenty-five (25) times daily

18.   The one who offers Doha Salah, keeps three fasts every month and does not miss Witr Salah whether travelling or not

19.   The one who fastens a horse on the border to fight disbelievers

20.   The one who recites Surah Yaseen every night

21.   The one who falls asleep in the state of Wudu and passes away

22.   The one who recites Salat upon the Noble Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم hundred times

23.   The one who prays for embracing martyrdom sincerely

24.   The one who passes away on the day of Friday

25.   The one who recites اَعُوْذُ بِاللّٰەِ السَّمِیْعِ الْعَلِیْمِ مِنَ الشَّیْطٰنِ الرَّجِیْمِ three times and then recites the last three Ayahs of Surah Al-Hashr in the morning; Allah Almighty will appoint seventy thousand (70,000) angels who will make Istighfar [i.e. repentance] for him until the evening; and if he passes away that day, he will die as a martyr. And the one who recites it in the evening, then the same is the virtue until the morning. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, pp. 859, 860, summarised)

We pray to Allah Almighty to bless us with martyrdom in the state of Iman and peace under the shade of the Green Dome, burial in Jannat-ul-Baqi, and neighbourhood of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم in Jannat-ul-Firdaus.

اٰمِیْن بِجَاہِ النَّبِیِّ الْاَمِیْن صلَّی اللہ علیہ واٰلہٖ وسلَّم



[1]   the membrane in which a child is covered inside the womb of the mother and which comes out along with the child at the time of birth

Share

Articles

Comments


Security Code