How is it to sell the same product to different customers at a different price?

How is it to sell the same product to different customers at a different price?

Question 1: What do the Scholars of Islam say regarding the following issue: Shopkeepers sell their products to each individual customer for a different price. They charge some customers £10 or £20 extra and sell the same product to other customers for a cheaper price. If the customer argues with them, then they reduce the price even more for him. Is it permissible to do this from an Islamic perspective?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ ھِدَایَةَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: A seller is the owner of his own product so he can sell it for as much as he like as long as he does not deceive the buyer. However, there are some products whose selling prices are fixed by the government. Such products must be sold at the fixed rate as it is necessary to abide by the laws (of the land). However, there are many products that this rule is not applicable to, e.g. clothes, furniture, etc. whose rates are not fixed. So for these products, a business tactic is used known as ‘price is as per the customer’. There is no dislike in this from a Shar’i aspect. Moreover, it is a right of both the customer and the shopkeeper to bargain. Lessening the asking price is proven from the Holy Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم. If it was not allowed to lessen the asking price, then it would not be established from the Holy Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم.

The Blessed Hadees states: Sayyiduna Suwayd Ibn Qays رَضِىَ الـلّٰـهُ عَـنْهُ states, ‘Makhrafah Abdi and I purchased a garment from the area of Hajar. We brought it to Makkah Al-Mukarramah where the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم came to us walking and bargained with us in relation to the price of a lower garment. So we sold it to him. There was a man there who was weighing in exchange for a wage. The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said to him: Weigh and give a greater amount. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih)

Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه writes in the commentary of this Hadees: Bargaining in regards to the price means that he صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم agreed the price and purchased it. (Mirqat) From this Hadees, we learn that going to the shop yourself and not giving the asking price of the shopkeeper, rather agreeing a price, and reducing it is a Sunnah. Even if one is buying from his slaves, there is no shame in bargaining.

He رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه further writes: ‘Since notes did not exist in that era and the currency in use was Dirhams which took a long time to count, they were hence weighed. The person weighing Dirhams was appointed by the seller and his wage was the responsibility of the buyer.’ (Mirat-ul-Manajih, vol. 4, p. 524)

A’la Hadrat Imam-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat دَامَـتْ بَـرَكَـاتُـهُـمُ الْـعَـالِـيَـهْ writes: ‘To carry out bargaining is better, in fact it is a Sunnah except in those things which are purchased for the journey of Hajj. In this situation, it is better to give the asking price.’ (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 17, p. 128)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم صلَّی اللہ علیہ واٰلہٖ وسلَّم

What should one do if he finds a dollar in trousers bought from a market of used goods?

Question 2: What do the Scholars of Islam say regarding the following issue: Zaid purchased a trouser from the market of used goods in which he found one dollar. Please state what should be done with the dollar?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ ھِدَایَةَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: This dollar comes under the ruling of Luqtah. Therefore, this dollar can be spent in any righteous work whilst spending it as Sadaqah. If Zaid is a Shar’i faqeer, he can even keep it himself. The clothes sold in a market of used goods are generally brought from abroad. Hence, the evidence suggests that the foreign currency found in the clothes belongs to those people who were the owners of those clothes abroad and now since it is not possible to return that money to them, the verdict will be to give that money as Sadaqah; just as this ruling has been mentioned in the books of Fiqh that a person purchased a property and dirhams were discovered in its walls. Now, if the seller says that they belong to him, then they will be given to him, otherwise, they will be classed as Luqtah.

Sadr-ul-Shari’ah, Badr-ul-Tareeqah, ‘Allamah Mufti Amjad Ali A’zami رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه writes: ‘A person purchased a house and money was found in its walls. If the seller says that it belongs to him, then he should give it to him, otherwise, it is Luqtah.’ (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 2, p. 483, Rad-ul-Muhtar, vol. 6, p. 437)

How is it for a goldsmith to make a men’s gold ring?

Question 3: What do the scholars of Islam say regarding the following issue:

I am a goldsmith. Is it permissible for me to make a men’s gold ring or gold buttons?

اَلْجَوَابُ بِعَوْنِ الْمَلِکِ الْوَھَّابِ اَللّٰھُمَّ ھِدَایَةَ الْحَقِّ وَالصَّوَابِ

Answer: A basic principle is that it is impermissible to make those things which are impermissible to use and it is permissible to make those things which are permissible to use. This principle should always be kept in mind in such matters. A’la Hadrat Imam-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat Maulana Shah Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه states: ‘This principle is to be remembered, it will aid you in many places. The thing that is impermissible to make, purchasing it and making use of it is also impermissible, and the thing which is not prohibited to purchase and make use of, it would not be impermissible to make it either.’ (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 23, p. 464)

It is permissible for a male to only wear one silver ring and it is necessary here too that the weight of the silver (ring) is less than 4.5 Masha (4.365g). It should also have one stone, not more than one, and it should not be without a stone either. Besides this, any kind of ring, chain or bracelet etc. is not allowed to be worn.

From the detail given, it has become clear that even wearing a gold ring for a male is not allowed. Therefore, it is not permissible for a goldsmith to make a gold ring for a male either.

As far as making gold buttons is concerned, the Jurists of Islam have permitted attaching gold buttons to clothing, as buttons come under clothing. Hence, it is permissible to make gold buttons, but it is not permissible to attach a chain to the button.

It is mentioned in Bahar-e-Shari’at: ‘It is permissible to attach gold or silver buttons to a shirt or a coat just as it is permissible to use a round silk button. Meaning, this is when the button does not have a chain; and if the button has a chain, then it would be impermissible to use as this chain comes under the ruling of jewellery which is not permitted for a male to use. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 3, p. 415)

وَاللہُ اَعْلَمُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ وَ رَسُوْلُہٗ اَعْلَم صلَّی اللہ علیہ واٰلہٖ وسلَّم

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