Treaty Of Hudaybiyah / Battle of Khandaq

In the sixth year of migration to Madinah, the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم had a dream that he, along with his blessed companions, entered Makkah with peace and prosperity and performed Umrah. Some of them shaved their heads while others had their hair cut. They entered Baytullah and took its key. Furthermore, they stayed in (the ground of) Arafat. (Seerat-e-Halbiyah, vol. 3, pp. 13)

The dream of a Prophet is a revelation. Therefore, in Zul-Qa’dah, 6 AH, the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم left for Makkah with the intention of [performing] Umrah along with his 1400 blessed companions. They had to stay at Hudaybiyah. Unbelievers prevented them from entering Makkah. It was there that this treaty was drawn up which came to be known as the treaty of Hudaybiyah. Here are some of its details.

The conditions of the treaty of Hudaybiyah

From the side of unbelievers, Budayl Bin Warqa Khuza`i, Urwah Bin Mas’ood Saqafi, Hulais Bin Alqama, and Mikraz came for negotiations respectively. Finally, Suhail Bin Amaru Qurayshi, the orator of Quraysh, came over and signed up the treaty, in which the following conditions were agreed.

*   Both parties will observe a ceasefire for ten (10) years.

*   The Muslims should go back without performing Umrah this year. They should come to perform Umrah the next year and stay in Makkah for three days.

*   The Muslims should only be armed with swords and those swords should be in the sheaths.

*   If a person migrates to Madinah from Makkah, he will be sent back; but if a person migrates to Makkah from Madinah, he will not be sent back.

*   Tribes of Arabia will have the authority to take any side they want. (Subul-ul-Huda, vol. 5, pp. 52; Al-Kamil fil Tareekh, vol. 2, pp. 87-89, summarised)

The far-reaching consequences of the treaty of Hudaybiyah

Apparently, the conditions of the treaty were against Muslims, but they had far-reaching consequences. Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه has said: On the surface, Islam seemed to have given in, but in fact it was a prominent victory, which Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ has described as:

اِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِیْنًاۙ(۱)

We have indeed granted a clear victory for you (O beloved)

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 26, Surah Al-Fath, Verse 1)

Then A’la Hadrat رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه, interpreting the Ayah 25 of Surah Al-Fatah, has said: This Ayah was revealed to console Muslims, implying that there were many reasons for preventing them from entering Makkah: There are many men and women in Makkah who are Muslims in secret. You could have trampled them unknowingly while attacking unbelievers. Moreover, there are people who are unbelievers now, but soon Allah Almighty will shower His blessings on them. He will honour them with embracing Islam. Their killing is not approved. These were the reasons why the unbelievers of Makkah were protected against killings and destruction. (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 30, pp. 381)

There is no victory greater than that of Hudaybiyah

Sayyiduna Siddeeq-e-Akbar رَضِىَ اللّٰـەُ عَـنْهُ used to say: There is no victory greater than the victory of Hudaybiyah in Islam, but people’s intellectual levels cannot understand the matters of Allah Almighty and the Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم. (Seerat-e-Halbiyah, vol. 3, pp. 41)

The abundance of those embracing Islam

Sayyiduna Imam Zuhri رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَلَيْه has said: When the ceasefire took effect and the peace was restored, the people started going to meet each other and the call to Islam began to spread. Anyone who had even a little bit of common sense entered the fold of Islam; and within two years from the treaty of Hudaybiyah to the conquest of Makkah, the number of people embracing Islam was equal to those who had embraced Islam before this period altogether, even more than that. (Tareekh-e-Tabari, vol. 2, pp. 224, summarised)

The blessings of Islam in Khyber, Fidak, and Tabuk

Once they felt secure from the side of Quraysh, [Muslims] found the opportunity to defeat the opposing powers of northern and central Arabia. Only three months after the treaty [was signed], the Jewish Centres Khyber, Fidak, and Tabuk were conquered and the allied tribes of Quraysh began to embrace Islam one after another. (Common biography books)

The Madani pearls obtained from the treaty of Hudaybiyah

Dear Islamic brothers! We can get a lot of Madani pearls if we ponder over the treaty of Hudaybiyah. Here are a few of them:

1.   Based on the requirement of circumstances, it is sometimes far-sighted and safe to reach an understanding and make a compromise.

2.   It is wise and a good judgement to lose a smaller benefit in favour of many and larger ones.

3.   If one fears persecution, quarrel, and bloodshed, he should give up his right, even though he deserves his right.

4.   Sometimes, withdrawing oneself from personal, family, or social disputes brings about peace.

5.   One should avoid making haste if he anticipates more benefits in waiting.

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Treaty Of Hudaybiyah / Battle of Khandaq

The Battle of Khandaq has special significance among all Islamic battles. This battle is also called the Battle of Ahzaab. It is called the Battle of Khandaq because Muslims dug a trench in this battle. On the other hand, the reason for calling it Ahzaab is that several groups of enemies attacked Muslims together. According to an opinion, this battle took place on 8 Zul-Qa’dah 5 AH. (Sharh-uz-Zurqaani ‘alal Mawahib, vol. 3, pp. 17, 64)

Background

When the Jews of the tribe Banu Nadeer were exiled from Madinah due to their conspiracies, they went to Khyber. Due to the malice and enmity towards Islam and the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم, they joined other unbelievers of Arab and prepared to attack Madinah Munawwarah. In this battle, the unbelievers were ten thousand (10,000), while the Muslims were only three thousand (3,000) in number. At the suggestion of Sayyiduna Salman Farsi رَضِىَ اللّٰـەُ عَـنْهُ, a decision was taken to dig a trench. Therefore, a trench was dug beside an open ground area, leaving the mountainous areas and the areas containing tight gorges and houses aside. (Madarij-un-Nubuwwah, vol. 2, pp. 167-168) In this battle, blessed companions عَـلَيْهِمُ الرِّضْوَانْ would dig the trench in the state of hunger. Even the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم was with the companions عَـلَيْهِمُ الرِّضْوَانْ personally, tying a stone to his blessed belly. (Bukhari, vol. 3, pp. 52, Hadees 4100, 4101, 4104)

Occurrence of miracles

In this battle, several miracles of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم occurred. Let’s read three miracles.

1.   Sayyiduna Jabir رَضِىَ اللّٰـەُ عَـنْهُ has stated, ‘While the trench was being dug, I noticed the sign of hunger on the luminous face of the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم. I arrived at home and asked my wife if there had been anything to eat because I had seen the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم  in the state of extreme hunger. She took out a bag containing one sa’a barley. We also had a baby goat. I slaughtered the baby goat and my wife ground the barley. I cut the meat into small pieces and put them into the pot. When I was about to go to the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم, my wife said: ‘Please do not make me feel embarrassed in front of the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم and his companions.’ I arrived and requested in the form of a whisper: ‘O Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم! We have slaughtered a baby goat and ground one sa’a barley flour. Please come to us with a few people.’ The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said aloud: ‘O the people of trench! Jabir has arranged a meal for you. Let’s go!’ The Blessed Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said to me: ‘Do not remove the pot and make roti.’ Then the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم arrived, leading the people. When I entered home, my wife said in a panic: ‘You did what I feared.’ I explained that I did exactly the same what she had said. The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم put his blessed saliva in the flour and made Du’a for blessing. Then he صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم put his blessed saliva in the pot as well and made Du’a for blessing again. Then he صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said: ‘Call one more woman who can make roti so that she makes rotis in front of me and keeps giving the meat after taking it out from your pot.’ He صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم emphasized that the pot should not be removed. All the people present there for eating were one thousand in number. I swear to Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! All of them ate, left behind (in eating pots) and went, but there was still the same amount of meat left in our pot which we had put into it to cook. Similarly, the flour was as much in quantity as it had been when we started making (roties).’ (Bukhari, vol. 3, pp. 52, Hadees 4102)

2.   Blessed companions عَـلَيْهِمُ الرِّضْوَانْ would come to the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم in times of trouble. While digging the trench, a hard rock could not be broken by the companions in any way. The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم took a pickaxe, recited بسم اللە, and broke the rock into pieces with three hits. A Noor kept coming out on every hit which all the people saw. The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said, ‘The areas of the country of Syria were shown to me on the first hit, the areas of Faaris (Iraq and Iran) on the second hit, and the areas of Sana’a (Yemen) on the third hit. Sayyiduna Jibraeel عَـلَيْـهِ الـسَّـلَام told me that my Ummah would conquer these three areas.’ (Musnad-e-Ahmad, vol. 6, pp. 444, Hadees 18716; Tabqat-e-Ibn-e-Sa’d, vol. 4, pp. 62)

3.   After hitting the wall of trench, when the shin of Sayyiduna Ali bin Hukm broke, people sat him on a horse and took him to the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم. The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم stroked his shin. His shin recovered even before he got off the horse. (Ma’rifat-ul-Sahabah, vol. 3, pp. 379, Raqm 4976)

Trials for Muslims and the end of battle

Muslims had a very difficult and hard time in this battle. Harsh winter, the enemies’ siege outside the city, less supplies for the necessities, and then the treachery of hypocrites and Banu Qurayzah created such situations which have been stated in the Holy Quran in this way:

وَ اِذْ زَاغَتِ الْاَبْصَارُ وَ بَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوْبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَ تَظُنُّوْنَ بِاللّٰهِ الظُّنُوْنَا(۱۰)

When the eyes remained stagnant in astonishment and the hearts came up to the throats, and you began to think of various thoughts (of hope and despair) regarding Allah.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 21, Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse 10)

The Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰـە عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم requested in the court of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ: اَللّٰهُمَّ مُنْزِلَ الكِتَابِ،سَرِيْعَ الحِسَابِ، اِهْزِ مِ الأَحْزَابَ،اَللّٰهُمَّ اهْزِمْهُمْ وَزَلْزِلْهُم i.e. O Allah Almighty! O the One Who has revealed the Book (Holy Quran)! O the One Who will do accountability soon! Defeat these groups. O Allah (عَزَّوَجَلَّ)! Defeat them and inflict earthquake upon them. (Bukhari, vol. 3, pp. 55, Hadees 4115)

Ultimately, the unbelievers had a rupture among themselves after laying siege for 15, 20, or 24 days (according to different narrations).

Allah Almighty blessed the Muslims with a success in such a way that one night, a very powerful hurricane came, causing the tents of the unbelievers to blow down and their pots turned upside down. A group of angels came who burnt the tents away after cutting their ropes and put fear in the hearts of the unbelievers. (Madarij-un-Nubuwwah, vol. 2, pp. 173) The unbelievers had no other choice, but to run away.

Effects

After this battle, unbelievers felt such a fear of Muslims that they did not dare attack Muslims again. Eventually, Makkah Mukarramah was conquered.

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