Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ – The first Islamic emperor

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  and his father Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  were both blessed companions. Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  shares a common ancestry with the Holy Nabi  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  in the 5th generation. He  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  embraced Islam after the ‘Treaty of Hudaybiyah’ in 6th Hijri but he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  did not disclose that he had become a Muslim. It was on the red-letter day of the conquest of Makkah when he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  came to the court of the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  along with his blessed father, Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , and proclaimed his faith in Islam. Upon this, the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  welcomed him, saying ‘Marhaba’ [مَرْحَبَا]. (Tabqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 7, pp. 285)

Blessed appearance

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  was tall and had a very awe-inspiring face with a fair complexion.  His beard was dyed yellow and would seem to be made of gold. (Tareekh-ul-Islam liz-Zahabi, vol. 4, pp. 308)

Virtues and qualities

Great achievements, virtues and qualities of Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  have been recorded in the books of Ahadees, biographies and history. Besides being the scribe of Divine revelation, he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  also had the privilege of writing the letters of the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ . (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabeer, vol. 5, pp. 108, Hadees 4748)

The Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  prayed for Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  many times. Sometimes, he  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  prayed in this way, ‘O Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! Bless Mu’awiyah with knowledge and forbearance.’ (Tareekh Kabeer, vol. 8, pp. 68, Hadees 2624)

The Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  sometimes prayed for Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  to become a source of guidance in these words, ‘O Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! Make Mu’awiyah the one who guides, who remains steadfast in guidance and make him a source of guidance for people.’ (Sunan-ut-Tirmizi, vol. 5, pp. 455, Hadees 3868)

Sometimes, Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  was showered with blessings by the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  in this way, ‘O Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! Grant Mu’awiyah the knowledge of mathematics and keep punishment away from him.’ (Musnad Ahmad, vol. 6, pp. 85, Hadees 17152)

The Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  sometimes admired him in a special gathering in this way, ‘Call Mu’awiyah, [and] raise this matter in front of him; [because] he is strong and trustworthy.’ (Musnad Bazzaar, vol. 8, pp. 433, Hadees 3507)

Similarly, when making Wudu during a journey, the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  advised Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  like this, ‘Mu’awiyah! If you are made the leader, then fear Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and hold fast to justice.’ (Musnad Ahmad, vol. 6, pp. 32, Hadees 16931)

Blessed traits

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  had many great traits which include sincerity, loyalty, kindness, knowledge, fulfilment of promises, expertise in Fiqh-o-Ijtihad [فِقْه و اِجْتِهَاد], good manners, generosity, skill in delivering sermons and speeches, hospitality, patience and tolerance, aiding the poor, services to humanity, obedience to Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ, following Sunnah and piety.

Tolerance

Once a man talked to Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  in a harsh way but he remained silent. Noticing it, someone said to Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , ‘If you want, you can punish him severely.’ He  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  replied, ‘If anyone from my dominion makes a mistake, then I feel shy of losing my tolerance.’ (Hilm-e-Mu’awiyah li Ibn Abid Dunya, pp. 22)

We both are elderly persons

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  once received some shawls and blankets which he distributed amongst the people of Syria. An elderly man did not like the shawl given to him, and he even swore an oath that he would hit Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  over his head with the shawl. When Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  heard it, he said to the elderly man, ‘O Brother! Hit me and fulfil your oath but hit me gently because I am also an elderly man like you.’ (Hilm-e-Mu’awiyah li Ibn Abid Dunya, pp. 27)

Enthusiasm for healing the inner self

Besides performing his duties, Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  was also enthusiastic about healing his inner self. Once he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  sent a letter to the mother of believers, Sayyidatuna ‘Aaishah Siddiqah رَضِىَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی عَنْهَا, seeking pieces of advice from her. (Sunan-ut-Tirmizi, vol. 4, pp. 186, Hadees 2422)

Blessed opinion of Sayyiduna ‘Ali

After the battle of Siffeen, Sayyiduna ‘Ali-ul-Murtada کَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی وَجْھَـهُ الْکَرِیْم said about Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , ‘Do not dislike the government headed by Mu’awiyah. If he leaves you, you will see heads separating from bodies as Andra`in [اندرائن] (a fruit). (It means you will not be able to face your enemy). (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 8, pp. 724, Raqm 18)

Devotion to Sayyiduna ‘Ali

Upon hearing the news of the martyrdom of Sayyiduna ‘Ali-ul-Murtada کَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی وَجْھَـهُ الْکَرِیْم, Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  said to Sayyiduna Daraar [ضرار]  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , ‘Describe the attributes of Sayyiduna ‘Ali-ul-Murtada کَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی وَجْھَـهُ الْکَرِیْم.’ When Sayyiduna Daraar  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  described the blessed attributes of Sayyiduna ‘Ali-ul-Murtada کَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی وَجْھَـهُ الْکَرِیْم, tears flowed from the eyes of Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , wetting his beard. Those present were also moved to tears. (Hilya-tul-Awliya, vol. 1, pp. 126)

Great services to Ahl-e-Bayt

Despite presenting generous gifts to Sayyiduna Imam Husayn  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  would ask for a pardon and say, ‘At present, I am not doing you valuable services; I will present more gifts to you in future.’ (Kashf-ul-Mahjoob, pp. 77)

Salah in Ka’bah

When Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  entered Makkah Mukarramah, he asked Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Umar  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ مَا, ‘Which is the place where the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  performed Salah in Ka’bah?’ He  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  humbly said, ‘Keep a distance of 2 to 3 arms’ length from the wall and perform Salah.’ (Akhbar-e-Makkah lil-Azraqi, vol. 1, pp. 378)

Water from blessed hairs

When Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  arrived in Madinah, he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  sent a man to the court of Sayyidatuna ‘Aaishah رَضِىَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی عَنْهَا with a request, ‘You have the blessed hairs and a blessed shawl of the Holy Nabi  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ . I want to behold them.’ Sayyidatuna ‘Aaishah Siddiqah رَضِىَ اللّٰہُ  تَعَالٰی عَنْهَا sent both these sacred relics to him. For attaining blessings, Sayyidatuna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  wore the shawl over his body and poured water onto the blessed hairs in a bowl. Then, he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  drank the water, and rubbed the left over water on his body. (Tareekh Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 59, pp. 153)

Blessed demise

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  had the following blessed relics of the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ : Blessed Tahband[1] , blessed shawl, blessed Qamees[2], blessed hair and sacred pieces of blessed nails.

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  continued to render services to the family members of the Holy Nabi  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ  and to blessed companions  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ م. At last, the journey of his life was coming to an end. At the time of demise, he  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  made a will, ‘Wrap me in shroud using the blessed Tahband, shawl and Qamees of the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ , place his blessed hairs and pieces of blessed nails on my nose and mouth and then bury me to be blessed with the mercy of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ.’ (Tareekh Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 59, pp. 229)

Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ , who was a scribe of Divine revelation and a great companion of the Beloved Rasool  صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ , departed this life on 4th or 15th or 22nd Rajab, 60 AH at the age of 78. (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabeer, vol. 19, Hadees 305, Raqm 679; Al-Istee’aab, vol. 3, pp. 472)

Sayyiduna Dahhaak [ضَحَّاک] Bin Qays  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  had the privilege to lead his funeral Salah and he was laid to rest at Bab-us-Sagheer, Damascus. (As-Suqaat li Ibn Habbaan, vol. 1, pp. 436)

Repentance from criticizing Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah

Shams-ul-Aimmah Imam Sarakhsee رَحْمَةُ اللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه (who passed away in 483 AH) has quoted following parable in the book Al-Mabsoot: Qazi Imam Jaleel Muhammad Bin Fadl [فَضْل] Al-Kamari [الکماری] رَحْمَةُ اللّٰەِ تَعَالٰی عَلَيْه used to speak ill of Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah  رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہُ  and find faults with him. Once he had a dream in which he saw that long hair was coming out of his mouth, hanging down to his feet. And he also saw that he was trampling over his hair with his tongue bleeding, causing him severe pain and trouble. Having woken up, he asked an interpreter of dreams about it, so the interpreter replied, ‘You speak ill of any blessed companion and criticise him; refrain from doing so.’ (Al-Mabsoot, Juz: 24, vol. 12, pp. 57)


[1] A piece of cloth used to cover the lower part of the body.

[2] A type of long, loose and full-sleeved shirt

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Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah رَضِىَ اللّٰەُ تَعَالٰی عَنْهُ – The first Islamic emperor

Silky dresses, fine riding animals, expensive perfumes, servants who are all around waiting only for the command, splendid lifestyle, plenty of wealth, every kind of luxury and comfort are the things which are not so easy to abandon, but one person abandoned all these pleasant things due to the fear of Allah Almighty and for the improvement of his Hereafter. Despite being the ruler, he adopted a simple lifestyle and set an example until the world exists. The personality I mean is the glorious caliph and the ruler in the Islamic history and the role model “Sayyiduna ‘Umar Bin ‘Abdul ‘Azeez  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ ”. Before becoming the caliph he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  used to live a splendid life, but there were no injustice and violation of rights in it. When he became the caliph, his lifestyle changed. Read a few things about his caliphate.

Refused royal riding animals and tents

As he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  returned from the burial of the former caliph, he was offered mules and horses of Turkish breed. He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  asked, ‘What is this?’ It was humbly replied, ‘These are royal conveyances and only the caliph rides on them. Please accept them.’ He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  said, ‘For me my mule is sufficient. Deposit them in the Bayt-ul-Maal [state treasury] of Muslims.’ Similarly, for his sittings, royal tents have been set up. He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  said, ‘Deposit them to Bayt-ul-Maal too.’ When he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  reached the royal carpets riding his mule, he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  removed them by his foot and then sat on the mat and also deposited the expensive carpets to Bayt-ul-Maal. (Seerat Ibn ‘Abdul Hakm, pp. 33)

His condition after becoming caliph

After becoming the caliph, he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  sold his entire land, slaves, maidservants, dresses, perfumes and other goods and spent the whole amount of money in the path of Allah Almighty. Upon his persuasion, his obedient wife also deposited her jewellery in Bayt-ul-Maal. He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  would take the wage of only 2 dirhams daily for household expenses and never took anything unnecessarily from Bayt-ul-Maal until his death. The wife of the caliph did not hire any maidservant at her home. She would do the entire household chores herself. (Seerat Ibn ‘Abdul Hakm, pp. 124; Seerat Ibn Jawzi, pp. 186)

Dress of the caliph

Before becoming the caliph, he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  would wear very expensive dresses. He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  himself says, ‘When people would see my clothes once, I would feel that now they became old.’ At times, he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  would buy a nice Jubbah (a type of robe) for one thousand dinars and would say, ‘May it not be coarse!’ But when he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  became the caliph, he abandoned his lifestyle and for him, an ordinary dress priced at 5 dirhams would be bought and he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  would say, ‘If it were not soft, it would be very good!’ (Seerat Ibn Jawzi, pp. 172; Ihya-ul-‘Uloom, vol. 3, pp. 897)

He got illegal occupations eliminated

Rauh [رَوح], the son of the former caliph, had occupied the shops of a few Muslims. When they made complaints, Sayyiduna ‘Umar Bin ‘Abdul ‘Azeez  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  ordered him to return their shops to them and asked his police officer, ‘If he returns the shops, it is good, otherwise give him capital punishment.’ He (Rauh) ended the illegal occupation and handed the shops over to their real owners. (Seerat Ibn ‘Abdul Hakm, pp. 52)

Helped the needy

He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  fixed stipends for the blind, the needy, stroke patients and for the disabled, or rather gave them slaves for their daily chores. He  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  even arranged marriages for the unmarried, paid-off the debts of the debtors and did not stop helping people belonging to any field.

Prosperity

In short, in his two and a half-year caliphate, he  رَحْمَۃُ اللہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ  eliminated cruelty, injustice and corruption and set such an example of justice and public service that if someone wanted to give Sadaqah, there would be no one to receive the Sadaqah. Even the people who used to receive Sadaqah before his caliphate became prosperous and were able to give Sadaqah themselves. (Seerat Ibn ‘Abdul Hakm, pp. 106; Tabqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 5, pp. 268)

May Allah Almighty have mercy on him and forgive us without any accountability for his sake!

اٰمِيۡن   بِجَاهِ   النَّبِيِّ  الۡاَمِيۡن    صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ

 

 

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